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Thursday, September 18, 2008

Harmful Insects Flash Cards

Click on the "Start Study Session" button.
A pop-up window opens.
Click on "Begin" button.
After the session is completed close the pop-up window.

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If you get the message "Embedded data could not be displayed" click on the following link to open the flash cards in a new window.
Harmful Insects Flash Cards

Tuesday, September 16, 2008

Useful Insects Flash Cards

Click on the "Start Study Session" button.
A pop-up window opens.
Click on "Begin" button.
After the session is completed close the pop-up window.

Error:Embedded data could not be displayed
If you get the message "Error:Embedded data could not be displayed" click on the following link to open the flash cards in a new window.
Useful Insects Flash Cards

Monday, September 15, 2008

Test



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Friday, September 12, 2008

Antibody Diversity

B-lymphocytes are capable of making many types of antibodies - approximately 18 billion different molecules. The diversity is generated from a relatively small number of genes by combining them in different ways.

Tuesday, September 9, 2008

Mouthparts of Insects

Pull the drop-down menu by clicking of the combo button to the right of "choose one". Select any type and view the description. To view another type you can repeat the same. To see one after the other, first choose one type then press the down and arrows on the key board and change to other types without using your mouse.

Basics Flash Cards

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Sunday, September 7, 2008

Pleural Membranes

To understand the relationship of pleura and lungs, imagine yourself pushing your fist into a partially inflated balloon. The part of the balloon wall adjacent to the skin of your fist is comparable to visceral pleura, the remainder of the balloon is comparable to parietal pleura. The air filled cavity between the two layers of balloon is analogous to the pleural cavity.
To view the the animation, press the begin button below, then press the next button (triangular button). To see the animation again, press the replay button (between the two triangular buttons).

Pulmonary Ventilation

Unlike in amphibians which use a force pump mechanism to force air into lungs, mammals use negative pressure ventilation, where increases in the lung volume decreases pressure in lungs leading to flow of air into the lungs.

Gas Exchange

The rate of gas exchange depends on:
1. Partial pressure of the gases
2. Solubility of the gases
3. Surface area
4. Diffusion distance
Partial Pressure
Partial pressure is the pressure exerted by and individual in a mixture of gases.
For example atmospheric pressure = 760 mm Hg
% of O2 of in Atmosphere = 20.95%
PO2 =20.95% of 760 mmHg = 159 mmHg
A gas always diffuses from the region of its higher partial pressure to the region of its partial pressure.



Gas Atm.Air Alveoli Deoxygenated Blood Oxygenated BloodTissues
O2 159 104 40 95 40
CO2 0.3 40 45 4045

All units in mmHg.

Flash Cards

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Saturday, September 6, 2008

X Chromosome Inactivation

Female mammals have two X chromosomes and one of these in every cell is inactivated. The inactivation occurs early in development when the embryo consists of a few cells. The inactivation is random – one X chromosome may be inactivated in one cell and the other X chromosome inactivated in another cell. Once a chromosome is inactivated it remains inactivated in all descendent cells.
With respect to their X chromosomes, female mammals are chimeras. A chimera is an organism composed of different genotypes. Some areas of their bodies have one X chromosome turned off and other areas have the other X chromosome inactivated.
An example of X-linked chimeras that can be seen visually are female cats that are heterozygous at the orange coat color locus. Orange is a locus on the X chromosome. Females with one allele for orange color and one for non-orange (tortoise shell and calico cats) have blotches of orange and other colors all over their bodies. Each blotch of color is composed of cells descended from a single cell in the embryo at the time of X-inactivation.

Gene Families

A gene family is a group of genes that has arisen by duplication and divergence of an ancestral gene. Some genes in the family may not have diverged. The members of a gene family may include expressed genes as well as non-expressed sequences. Such non-expressed sequences include pseudogenes.
View the animation below:

Friday, September 5, 2008

Capillary Exchange

Capillary Exchange
Exchange of substances between blood capillaries and the interstitial fluid of tissues is regulated by hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure. Fluid leaves the blood capillaries at the arteriolar end of a capillaries. About 90% of this fluid reenters capillaries at their venular ends. The remaining fluid is returned to the blood through lymphatic system.


Wednesday, September 3, 2008

Rabbit Skull - Videos

Three dimensional view of skull of rabbit in rotation can be seen in the three videos posted here.

video


video


video

test




Nerve Impulse Animation


Tuesday, September 2, 2008

Rabbit Skeleton Images

This is a slide show of various images of skeleton of rabbit. When you move your mouse over the image, the cursor changes to a hand. Click on the image. You will see the play controls appearing at the bottom of the image. You may use the pause/play button as well as the next and previous buttons to navigate.